Kategorie: TRAFO

Urban Agriculture in Pre-Modern Istanbul

By Ayşe Nur Akdal. Today, one can find it bizarre to come across a rural element in cities. However, historically, there was not a clear distinction between urban and rural. Agricultural and urban space existed together. Due to a lack of sufficient preservation and transportation technologies, easily perishable foods, such as dairy products and vegetables, were produced in urban areas. Istanbul was a good example with widespread and plentiful market gardens (2017; 11-18).

Missionary Anxiety Along Ottoman Istanbul’s Railways

By Gabriel Doyle. When new railway lines started to crisscross Ottoman territory at the end of the 19th century, the infrastructural change fuelled a missionary awakening. Catholic congregations, especially, were interested in the urban and rural areas around the Anatolian railway line, which started to be built in 1889 and intended to link Istanbul to Ankara.

Outside Looking in: On Teaching Art History from the ‘Margins’

By Hala Auji (Art History, American University of Beirut, Lebanon). What does it mean to teach art history, a discipline still rooted in eighteenth-century European Enlightenment ideals, in present-day Lebanon? As an art historian of the Middle East living and working in Beirut, teaching courses on the region has proven to be more challenging than one might imagine.

‘النَظر من الخارج: في تدريس تاريخ الفنّ من ’الهوامش

هلا عوجي (تاريخ الفنّ، الجامعة الأميركية في بيروت، لبنان). ما الذي يعنيه في لبنان اليوم أن ندرّس تاريخ الفنّ، ذلك الفرع الذي لا يزال يضرب بجذوره في المُثُل العليا لعصر التنوير الأوروبي في القرن الثامن عشر؟ بصفتي مؤرخةً للفنّ في الشرق الأوسط أعيش وأعمل في بيروت، ثبت لي أنّ مساقات التدريس في المنطقة أكثر تحدّيًا مما تخيّلت.

Seasons of Capitalism: Human and Non-Human Nature in the Making of Lebanon’s Silk Industry

By Graham Auman Pitts. Capitalism had it seasons in late-Ottoman Mount Lebanon. Each spring, the families that tilled orchards of mulberries purchased the eggs they needed on c­­­­­redit. Mulberry leaves nourished the eggs, which hatched and began to spin their cocoons once the temperature was reliably above 16° Celsius.

Humanities in Germany: Sciences Among Sciences

By Sabine Behrenbeck (Head of Department for Higher Education, German Council for Science and Humanities, Germany). There are many common problems and complaints regarding the humanities in anglophone nations and Germany, but there is also one important difference: In Germany the disciplines dealing with culture and language, religion and history are “sciences among sciences” (Wissenschaften unter Wissenschaften).

The Fijeh Water Project and the Cholera Epidemic in 1903 Damascus

By Benan Grams. On June 30th, 1903 Sultan Abdulhamid II approved a project to bring potable water to Damascus from the Ein el-Fijeh spring. The project was presented to the central government by Nazim Pasha, the governor of Syria, during a persistent cholera epidemic that afflicted Damascus throughout that year.

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